Saint Peter's Square  is located directly in front of St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City.
photo of the St. Peter's square taken from the Cupola
The open space basilica was redesigned as a  forecourt "so that the greatest number of people could see the Pope give his blessing, either from the middle of the facade of the church or from a window in the Vatican Palace
the Vatican Palace
 The colossal Tuscan colonnades, four columns deep, frame the trapezoidal entrance to the basilica.
The Egyptian obelisk marked a center of the square . It is a red granite and stands 25.5 meters tall.In 1817 circular stones were set to mark the tip of the obelisk's shadow at noon as the sun entered each of the signs of the zodiac, making the obelisk a gigantic sundial's

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